Saturday, May 23, 2020
Living Conditions During the life and times of William Shakespeares era Free Essay Example, 1250 words
It was the age of theaters, comparable to the popularity of movies and cinema of today. Politics and propaganda was part of the plays. Theater was an industry. London was the hub of theater activity. Theatre entrepreneurs had money, fame and they created excitement for the society. Men played womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles, wearing awkward clothing as women were prohibited from appearing on the stage. Women too disguised as men to get a role. But women had other opportunities, Singman writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Already in this period, women were often involved in elementary teaching. Women engaged in various home industries, especially the spinning of wool thread. Ã¢â¬ (p. 31) As for job opportunities, it was a strange period, as compared to the present times. Apothecary was very popular. The one who practiced apothecary sold potions and poisons to the public! Acrobatics was comparable to the circus shows of today. The best jobs were commanded by the artists. Jeffrey L Singman writes, Ã¢â¬Å"In towns, the economy was dominated by crafts and trades. There was very little actual industry at this time. Crafts and finished products were largely provided by craftsmen and Trades tradesmen out of small specialty shops. Ã¢â¬ (p. 29) Blacksmiths were in great demand. We will write a custom essay sample on Living Conditions During the life and times of William Shakespeare's era or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now There were iron tool makers and they also did repairs job. They manufactured weapons for the army. Fashion was the watchword and highly unique. The dress reflected oneÃ¢â¬â¢s status and wealth. Upper class was fond of many layers of clothing and elegant styles. Lower class stuck to basic materials. The laws prescribed what one could and could not wear depending upon oneÃ¢â¬â¢s status. To support a particular vocation/industry often novel rules were introduced. Singman writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Flat caps were either knit of woolen yarn or sewn of woven fabric. In an effort to support the cap-knitting industry, it was mandated by law in 1571 that male commoners wear knitted flat caps on Sundays and holidays. Ã¢â¬ (p. 105) The Elizabethan era was a time associated with Queen Elizabeth Is reign (1558Ã¢â¬â1603) and is often considered to be the golden age in English history. That was the period as well when Shakespeare shone with his most brilliant writing and theater talents. But the golden age was the violent age also. Torture was common and many devices and weapons were used for th is ill-famed exercise. Ã¢â¬Å"Many games where very violent, like fencing. The Elizabethan Period had many forms of recreation and amusement activities. Typically the sports were categorized as team sports, blood sports, and individual sports.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Things Fall Apart: OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s Masculinity The Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe is a straight to the point story, embedded with interesting elements that capture readersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention. In my view, when I read the story, I found many interesting things about the theme of the book. But The Masculinity Okonkwo was what captures my attention. The story opens up to a Traditional Igbo lifestyle, a theme which is highly stylized from its ritual to the actions performed for certain ceremonies. Most of the action Igbo tribe has been an attempt to show respect to the gods, for example, when ikemefuna became sick and his stomach swelled up their traditions says that he take them to the evil forest and kill him. The story also seems to focus on gender,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The only thing he (Okonkwo) fears most is not ending up like his father, Unoka. However, Achebe Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëmakes an insightful comment on the nature of masculinity through his representation of the tribal leaders. Achebe basically, was conducive in cr eating four alter egos of Okonkwo: one of which were the masculinity; next of his fatherly abilities; and the last of his family progress and four of his likelihood of successÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (Achebe.179). My paper will explain how OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s Masculinity from AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Things Fall Apart will be characterized by his fears, beliefs, and emotions for several reasons. The first reason is the fears of OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s Masculinity, in the story Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo masculinity is characterized by his fear of becoming like his father. Even though, OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s father (Unoka) was a talented musician, he was still known for his laziness and irresponsible by Okonkwo. Since Unoka bad reputation was known for his failure to pay his debt, which brings shame to his family. However, he (Unoka) did not intentionally want to disgrace his family, he just does not find any interest in the works and titles but leisureÃ¢â¬â¢s, parties, and music. Unoka does not like to do anythin g, but play his flute. Because of his bad reputation, along with his fear of blood and warfare combined with his laziness and his massive unpaid debts and his nearly starving family marks himShow MoreRelatedThings Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbook Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe does just that. This book should be taught in schools because it shows the values and traditions of AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Igbo culture, persistently teaches life lessons throughout the book, and shows the darker reality of European colonialism in Africa. Chinua Achebe is known as one of the most influential and famous authors to ever write. Chinua Achebe originates from an Igbo background and he expresses that through his writings very well including Things Fall ApartRead MoreThe Struggle Between Tradition and Change1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesENGL 2112 October 17, 2012 In Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the reader is taken on a literary journey to a Nigerian tribe, the Umuofia, to experience first-hand the struggles of a warrior named Okonkwo. At first glance, the novel appears to be written for a very specific audience: scholars familiar with Nigerian history, traditions, and culture. However, upon further examination the novel reveals itself to be a striking chronicle of human experiences, universal themes, and timelessRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCarlos Gomez once stated, Ã¢â¬Å"So many men in this world (are) living in this sort of quiet desperation, confined in this box of toxic masculinity.Ã¢â¬ In the novel Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, some characters are the epitome of this toxic masculinity. Things Fall Apart shows the dimension of both Igbo people and culture, while highlighting the tale of a tragic hero, Okonkwo. OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s rise to glory was demonstrated by his humble beginnings and eye for prosperity. However, abundant cultural differencesRead MoreIb English Written Task993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesanalysis: Things Fall Apart, Chinua Achebe Part of the course to which the task refers: Part 3: Literature Ã¢â¬â text and context Key Points: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Define masculinity in OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explore how Okonkwo never shows his emotions because of fear Ã¢â¬ ¢ Describe the struggle of OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s strength Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discuss the importance of OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation of Umuofia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explain why Okonkwo emphasized on his masculinity Critical Response In Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Things Fall Apart, interpretationsRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThings Fall Apart was written by a Nigerian man named Chinua Achebe in 1958, with the intentions of fully exploiting the truth and creating a new perspective about African culture. Seeing as though Achebe lived through the colonization of the Igbo people, he was able to write without stereotyping Africans and European people. Achebe purposefully wrote this novel in English instead of Igbo language because he wanted the perspective shared across Europe to defeat previously construed beliefs of theRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThings Fall Apart was written in 1958 by the Nigerian author Chinua Achebe. Things Fall Apart follows the life of Okonkwo and his village of Umuofia and how everything changes as Christian missionaries come to spread the word of God. Chinua Achebe wrote this novel using stories and tal es he heard growing up that were based on true events. Chinua Achebe wrote Things Fall Apart because he wanted to people to understand and see what indigenous Africa was like before the missionaries came. He wantedRead MoreThings Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe 735 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThings fall apart. Achebe. Ernest Gaines once said, Ã¢â¬Å"I write to try to find out who I am. One of my main themes is manliness. I think Im trying to figure out what manliness really is.Ã¢â¬ Indeed, every society or culture has its own understanding of an ideal man. Even though these characteristics are different in various parts of the world, the significance of masculinity can never be overestimated. Ã¢â¬Å"Things Fall ApartÃ¢â¬ by Chinua Achebe is considered as one of the best examples of a riseRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart Essay1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Things Fall Apart, explores the complicated journey of the protagonist Okonkwo, an influential clan leader within the Nigerian village of Umuofia, and the struggles he encounters as a result of white colonist infiltration. Prior to the arrival of the colonist forces, Okonkwo is an individual that prides himself on his masculinity and success; living in direct contrast to his father Unoka, a r ather lazy and cowardice man, as a result of a sense of shame he endures from his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThings Fall Apart Character Analysis1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesespecially his women) he was not really a manÃ¢â¬ (Chinua Achebe 53). This quote from Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Things Fall Apart demonstrates the power of men as it is presented throughout the novel. Things Fall Apart is the story of OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles in society, and his search for power throughout his life. During his exile, cultures clash and chaos erupts in the Igbo village. OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s father, his exile in Mbanta, and the roles of men in society urged Okonkwo to gain power over others, and enhanced AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThings Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the Igbo tribe in Africa bases their peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s social status and everyday life on gender. Women are expected to be submissive and thought to be weaker compared to their male counterparts. Men on the other hand are thought of as strong and must live up to the expectations of the clan. There are several instances in the book that strongly emphasize the masculine roles in the Ibo tribeÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Throughout the book, OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s extreme views on masculinity gains
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Jeddah is one of the most of import metropoliss of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Located on the shore of the Red Sea, the metropolis has a population of more than 3.5 million, and after Riyadh, is the 2nd largest urban colony of the state ( CIA Factbook, 2010, p1 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Flash Floods In Jeddah Saudi Arabia Environmental Sciences Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Incorporating the largest port on the Red Sea, it is the chief entry point for Mecca, the holiest metropolis of the Islamic faith ( CIA Factbook, 2010, p1 ) . It acts as a conduit for 1000000s of worshippers on their manner to Mecca and is otherwise a really busy commercial Centre ( CIA Factbook, 2010, p1 ) . Jeddah is besides known to be among the more cosmopolite of Saudi Arabian finishs and is home to many people from western states, because of its sea facing location, commercial importance and international connection ( CIA Factbook, 2010, p1 ) . The metropolis experienced brassy inundations in the last hebdomad of November in 2009 ( Al-Bargi, A. , 2009, p 1 ) . The inundations resulted in a regular calamity as much of the metropolis was submerged in 3 pess of H2O and autos were swept off and piled on top of each other ( Al-Bargi, A. , 2009, p 1 ) . Appendix 1 provides some images of the flash inundations, which illustrate the extent and outrageousness of harm caused. The inundations, which lasted for hardly a twosome of yearss, resulted in the loss of more than a 100 lives and damaged 2 one million millions of dollars of belongings ( Abumansour, W. , 2009, p 1 ) . The following few yearss saw the occupants of the metropolis confronting the dangers of a possible epidemic because of ( a ) overruning sewerage from the nearby Musk Lake, which threatened to come in the metropolis, and ( B ) obvious troubles in burying the work forces, adult females, kids, and animate beings, who had died during the inundations ( Abumansour, W. , 2009, p 1 ) . Western citizens were bemused by the strength of the mayhem and devastation caused by merely three inches of rain in a really short span of clip on November 25. A occupant of Florida writes as follows: Ã¢â¬Å" On Wednesday, my portion of west-central Florida received three-to-five inches of rain. No 1 died, even as the consequence of a traffic accident. Other than a few puddles an inch or two deep, the H2O was gone within hours of the rain Ã¢â¬Ës passing. My metropolis has a population of about 52,000 people and nowhere near the fiscal assets of Jeddah Ã¢â¬ . ( Crossroads Arabia, 2010, p1 ) The yearss that followed the inundations witnessed an unprecedented moving ridge of indignation in Saudi Arabia over the incompetency of the authorities in forestalling the inundations, which assumed the overtones of a calamity of great magnitude in footings of loss of lives and harm to belongings ( Alice A ; King, 2009, p 1 ) . The episode besides resulted in terrible and all circular disapprobation of the inefficiency of town planning in Jeddah ( Alice A ; King, 2009, p 1 ) . Numerous accusals of corruptness against authorities functionaries and members of the bureaucratism led to the suspension of legion responsible functionaries and the establishment of a public question ( Al-Sulami, 2010, p 1 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah has ordered the instances of all those accused of complicity in the November inundations in Jeddah referred to the watchdog for authorities employees and the national prosecution organic structureÃ¢â¬ ¦ The male monarch made it clear that offenses affecting fiscal and administrative corruptness would non be included in the list of offenses he may take to excuse subsequently Ã¢â¬ . ( Al-Sulami, 2010, p1 ) 1.2. Definition of Problem Recent decennaries have witnessed a batch of natural inundation related catastrophes of different dimensions with changing grades of eventful harm. Pakistan has really late, in early August 2010, experienced inundations of huge badness, which have resulted in more than 1500 deceases. The impact of the Indian Ocean Tsunami, where more than 100,000 lives were lost, will non be forgotten shortly ( National Geographic News, 2005, p 1 ) . A figure of cyclones damaged American metropoliss in the recent yesteryear and caused important harm to life and belongings ( Borland, 2010, p 1 ) . Environmental and ecological experts attribute the greater happening of such natural catastrophes in recent old ages to planetary heating and eventful climatic alteration ( Castonguay, 2007, p 820 ) . With the impact of such climatic alteration non expected to slake in future, national and international policy shapers are working on assorted ploies to protect life and belongings from the effects of such environmental turbulencies ( Castonguay, 2007, p 820 ) . 1.3. Aim Governments across the universe are explicating and implementing customised programs and solutions for the protection of their citizens from the wrath of nature. Such programs evidently have to basically be bespoke in character and designed to protect against specific environmental menaces ( Carter, 2007, p 330 ) . Cities in hilly countries need to be protected from the effects of temblors and landslides, even as occupants of habitations near rivers, dikes, reservoirs and seas need to be protected from the onslaught of H2O ( Carter, 2007, p 330 ) . Plans to protect citizens from catastrophes must besides basically integrated catastrophe readying and catastrophe direction activities before, during and after the happening of catastrophes ( Carter, 2007, p 330 ) . The Saudi Government has evidenced high degrees of concern about the execution of inundation and catastrophe direction programs in the land and the overcoming of associated troubles and limitations ( A1SaudiArabia.com, 2010, p 1 ) . This thesis aims to look into the assorted hazards that can emerge from inundations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is besides proposed to analyze the consequence of assorted factors that can dispute or blockade flood direction programs at Jeddah and the assorted programs and steps that can be implemented to get the better of such challenges. 1.4. Purposes and Aims The purposes and aims of this thesis, framed in conformity with the defined job and the intent of this survey, are now elaborated as under. To analyze the assorted grounds that led to the tremendous mayhem and devastation after the happening of the flash inundations in Jeddah on November 25, 2009. To analyze and measure the assorted hazards that can originate for life and belongings in the KSA because of unsuitable and unequal inundation direction patterns. To analyze the different issues concerned with flood direction as besides the deductions of such issues on hazard direction for concerned public and private bureaus and for members of the population. To analyze and understand the assorted deductions of be aftering on ecosystems with specific mention to Saudi Arabia. To urge specific schemes, programs and steps to protect the human population, animate being and works life, and single and organizational belongings, in KSA, from such challenges. 1.5. Structure This thesis has been structured to guarantee consecutive advancement of research findings, right from the introductory subdivision through the literature reappraisal, the pick of appropriate research methodological analysis, and the obtaining and analysis of informations to allow recommendations and decisions. The bibliography and assorted appendices used during the survey have been placed at the terminal of the thesis. 2. Literature Reappraisal This reappraisal of extant literature involves a elaborate survey of assorted facets of inundations, their grounds, their effects, and the assorted ways in which communities and societies are ( a ) seeking to forestall their happening, ( B ) understate their impact on the ecosystem, human and carnal life, and single and organizational belongings, and ( degree Celsius ) trade with their wake. Information beginnings have been chosen carefully for their relevancy to the Jeddah inundations of 2009, and to the broader issue of flood bar and direction in Saudi Arabia. 2.1. Hazards from Floods Deluging is widely accepted to be the first causal factor for loss of life and harm to belongings from natural events in legion parts of the universe ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . It is to lucubrate farther considered to be far more detrimental than other types of natural catastrophes or jeopardies like temblors and fires ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . The Munich Reinsurance Company, in a survey conducted in 2000, found that practically 50 % of loss of life and one tierce of economic losingss that took topographic point due to natural catastrophes, occurred because of implosion therapy ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . Damages from inundations have been peculiarly terrible in modern-day times ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . The last decennary in peculiar has witnessed a figure of inundation related catastrophes across the universe, which has resulted in widespread loss of life and amendss, amounting to 100s of one million millions of dollars, to belongings ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . Whilst states li ke China and Bangladesh experience deluging with associated loss to lives and belongings really often, other states, like Saudi Arabia, for illustration, seldom face inundations ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . However when inundations do happen in such countries, their force, impact and eventful flood is no less severe than in inundation prone parts ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . It is apparent that all populated countries across the universe face hazards from implosion therapy, even as some societies are far more vulnerable than others to deluge jeopardies ( Alexander, 2006, p 1 ) . Again whilst some societies have come to understand the harm that can be caused by inundations and have adopted suited steps to understate associated harm, many others continue to be caught off guard and are found to be unprepared, to a great extent, when inundations occur ; such insufficiencies exist both in understating the harm from such inundations and in taking appropriate station catastrophe action ( Alexander, 2006, p 1 ) . The members of such under protected societies therefore frequently experience far more loss to life and belongings than those of better prepared communities ( Alexander, 2006, p 1 ) . The rapid and progressive addition in planetary population has led to the demand for people to settle in new and hitherto unpeopled countries, some of which are known to be prone to natural jeopardies ( Boruff A ; Cutter, 2007, p 24 ) . Saudi Arabia for case is sing uninterrupted addition in its population, much of which is fuelled by the influx of people from other states, who come in hunt of employment in the oil rich and fast turning Saudi economic system ( Boruff A ; Cutter, 2007, p 24 ) . The motion of people on history of political, societal and economic grounds frequently leads to the development of habitation in countries that could be prone to deluging events ( Boruff A ; Cutter, 2007, p 24 ) . Floods are defined in insurance contracts as a Ã¢â¬Å" impermanent covering of land by H2O as a consequence of surface Waterss get awaying from their normal confines or as a consequence of heavy precipitation. Ã¢â¬ ( Kron, 2005 P 58 ) They can be categorised into three distinguishable categories, viz. ( a ) storm surges, ( B ) river inundations and ( degree Celsius ) flash inundations ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . Apart from these three types of inundations, deluging can besides happen because of specific grounds like the happening of tsunamis, interruptions in dike, lifting of land H2O, and glacial lake effusions ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . Storm surges occur chiefly on the seashores of large lakes, seas, and oceans ( Castonguay, 2007, p 820 ) . They have in the past been the ground for the greatest losingss to life and belongings that have occurred because of natural H2O related catastrophes ( Castonguay, 2007, p 820 ) . Whilst developed states are strengthening their seashores in order to understate the harm from such happenings, storm rushs continue to be a major menace in coastal countries across the universe ( Castonguay, 2007, p 820 ) . River inundations occur after heavy and uninterrupted rainfall for many yearss, and even hebdomads, over well big geographical parts ( Changnon, 1996, p 14-32 ) . Impregnation of dirt in such instances consequences in the inability of the land surface to absorb H2O indefinitely and farther rainfall consequences in H2O running straight into watercourses and rivers ( Changnon, 1996, p 14-32 ) . Such inundations by and large grow bit by bit, even though they can sometimes happen within short periods, and can impact really big countries, particularly where land topography is level ( Changnon, 1996, p 14-32 ) . Whilst river inundations in narrow vales lead to flood of little strips of land alongside rivers, the deepnesss of such flood and speed of H2O can be overly high and lead to tremendous devastation of life and belongings in affected countries ( Changnon, 1996, p 14-32 ) . Whilst river inundations occur from river based H2O beginnings and non from seas or oceans, their consequence is frequently greater than that of deluging caused by seas ( Changnon, 1996, p 14-32 ) . Flash inundations are preponderantly local events, which occur in a scattered mode at different times across the universe ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . Such inundations come about after the happening of intense rainfall in a short geographical country ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . The rate of infiltration of H2O into the land in such instances is much slower than the rate of precipitation, even though the land may non be to the full saturated ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . Flash inundations frequently occur really all of a sudden and flood moving ridges can hotfoot to distant but immediate locations in really short periods ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . Whilst the prediction of brassy inundations is really hard because of the highly little period between its first indicant and existent happening and the existent period of happening of rainfall is short, their possible for devastation is huge ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . Such inundations occur non merely in steep terrains, where H2O ca n flux fleetly, but besides in level countries where land inclines are excessively less for the happening of fleet storm H2O overflows ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . Water in such state of affairss collects on the surface in barely noticeable depressions and in other countries like belowground parking tonss, cellars and metros ( Briguglio, 2008, p 1-15 ) . Deluging besides occurs because of H2O logging when widespread and uninterrupted rains inundate big traps of land ( Castonguay, 2007, p 820 ) . 2.2. Impact of Eco Systems on Floods Environmental experts province that whilst clime alteration is perchance act uponing the inordinate rainfall that has been harrying Asia in the last few old ages, the purposeful and progressive devastation of eco systems by worlds is playing a greater function in the intensification of the badness of inundations ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . Extensive deforestation, along with the transition of wet lands to sprawling urban development and the blocking of natural drainage systems are escalating the impact of inundations ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . A figure of environmental experts agree that whilst much of the modern twenty-four hours jobs associated with environmental issues are being attributed to climate alteration, the badness of natural catastrophes is really intensifying because of human devastation of natural substructure ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . Millions of people are constructing places along flood fields and increasing refuse is barricading natural H2O ways ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . All across Asia, metropoliss are sing unplanned growing of urban conurbation, along with hapless land and waste direction ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . Such developments are cut downing natural protective phenomena and exposing human life and belongings to opportunities of extended harm ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . Obtaining a true apprehension of eco system services in the safeguarding of human well being is hard because of the scope of factors that can both protect and harm worlds during natural catastrophes ( Castonguay, 2007, p 820 ) . The following tabular array illustrates the assorted ways in which eco systems play of import functions in inundation ordinance ( Castonguay, 2007, p 820 ) . Key Role of Ecosystems in Regulating Extreme Events Ecosystem Role in Flood Regulation Cultivated Crop screen provides flood protection, conditioned on good direction Dry land Protection through flora screen ; recharge of aquifers Forest Protection from inundations supplying inundation fading and dirt loss bar Urban Move people off from flood-prone countries, conditioned on good urban planning Inland Waters Provide mechanisms for inundation fading potency ( wetlands, lakes, etc. ) Coastal Benefits from sediment conveyance to the coastal zone ; inundation protection provided by coastal ecosystems ( barrier beaches, Rhizophora mangles, etc. ) Devil dog Benefits from alimentary conveyance to the oceans Polar Discharge ordinance to oceans in the Arctic system ( freshwater proviso to Arctic oceans ) Mountains Regulating flood-related events ( slope stableness ) Islands Benefits from sediment conveyance to oceans through inundations from the mainland ; aquifer recharge as chief beginning of fresh H2O ( Beginning: Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 444 ) 2.3. Role of Spatial Planning in Flood Prevention and Control Increased exposure to implosion therapy of different types is happening across the universe because of devastation of protective eco systems like Rhizophora mangles, coral reefs and inundation fields ( Alterman, 2001, p 7-19 ) . Catastrophes have been found to be higher in parts that have suffered from greater environmental debasement ( Alterman, 2001, p 7-19 ) . Many states experience terrible jobs from inundations at irregular but frequent intervals ( Chan A ; Parker, 1996, p 313 ) . The traditional attack taken by such states for decrease of inundation control consists chiefly of ( a ) steps like building of butchs and dikes, and ( B ) betterments to canals, channels, and drainage systems ( Chan A ; Parker, 1996, p 313 ) . Many of such programmes have been adopted specifically for metropoliss and demarcated agricultural countries and have involved the deployment of a limited scope of technology activities for the overcoming of deluging jobs ( Chan A ; Parker, 1996, p 313 ) . Whilst some of these solutions have proven to be utile, others have ended up in worsening inundation harm ( De Cola, 2002, p 363 ) . Many western states are now recognizing the insufficiency of inundation direction programmes that are entirely dependent upon structural steps ( De Cola, 2002, p 363 ) . Western states are progressively prosecuting in deployment of non-structural methods for inundation bar ( Comfort, 1988, p 78- 82 ) . Such steps aim to understate losingss through commanding urban and indirect development in countries at hazard from inundations ( Comfort, 1988, p 78- 82 ) . Non-structural steps are by and big utilized along with a scope of structural steps in order to make comprehensive systems for covering with inundation jobs ( Comfort, 1988, p 78- 82 ) . Many such programmes with non-structural constituents have nevertheless met with partial success because of jobs associated with zoning of land and resettlement of people ( Comfort, 1988, p 78- 82 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" Comprehensive inundation jeopardy direction is the most effectual manner to turn to inundation control issues. It incorporates a assortment of technology, environmental protection and planning steps. It includes inundation field direction, inundation control care activities, storm H2O direction, shoreline direction, protection of often flooded countries under Growth Management, watershed direction, other inundation hazard extenuation activities, and readying for inundation catastrophes where extenuation activities can non forestall implosion therapy. Ã¢â¬ ( MRSC, 2010, p1 ) Experts agree that spacial direction, which includes both structural and non-structural steps, can significantly assist in forestalling and cut downing the impact of natural catastrophes ( Comfort, 1988, p 78- 82 ) . Such be aftering basically contains the undermentioned elements: Early on warning system: Spatial planning will win merely if it is based upon sound information on the part under consideration. This calls for the debut and execution of suited methods for acquisition and measuring of informations about environmental jeopardies. Risk Assessment and Mapping: The preparation of effectual systems for bar of inundation related catastrophes depends upon the handiness of comprehensive information on the causes and impact of deluging. Such systems require the creative activity of appropriate models for appraisal and rating of inundations. Hydrological and geological information like thematic jeopardy maps can assist significantly in cut downing loss of life and belongings because of inundations. Prevention and Decrease: Spatial planning attempts require the analysis of assorted inter-relationships between spacial planning and the happening of inundations. Appropriate spacial theoretical accounts can be discussed and established merely on the footing of consequences of such analysis. Hazard direction: Spatial planning, to be effectual, needs to carefully look at assorted elements of substructure like emptying paths and safety infinites, which can assist safeguard and unafraid persons during the happening of inundations. Reconstruction: Spatial planning is of utmost importance during Reconstruction after catastrophes, when reconstructing has to be suitably executed in order to extinguish past insufficiencies and fix for future developments. ( Comfort, 1988, p 78- 82 ) 2.4. Prevention, Management and Control of Flood Catastrophes Spatial planning, whilst highly of import for extenuation of the impact of inundations is merely one of a figure of dimensions that have to be considered, when be aftering for bar, direction, and control of inundation catastrophes. Some highly of import facets of inundation control are detailed in the undermentioned sub-sections ( Haeuber A ; Michener, 1998, p 74 ) . 2.4.1. Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping A exposure analysis aims to measure the hazards faced by constructions and populations within inundation prone countries ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . Such analysis assesses the possible impact of implosion therapy by manner of harm to roads, Bridgess, edifices and critical public-service corporations ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . Vulnerability analysis is executed for different chance degrees of inundations and leads to the development of an elevation-damage curve ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . Such an analysis, by placing high hazard populations, is utile for preparation of needed exigency responses in footings of emptying and impermanent shelters ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . A exposure analysis besides helps in make up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s minding acceptable hazard degrees and the degree for which protection is indispensable ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . Function is closely associated with exposure analysis and represents a elaborate definition of hazard prone countries ( Kaschube, 2006, p 50 ) . Mapping is an of import cardinal activity for all types of inundation readying programmes ( Kaschube, 2006, p 50 ) . With such maps frequently holding legal deductions with respect to zoning and the executing of structural and non-structural inundation control actions, they must be believable and accurate ( Kaschube, 2006, p 50 ) . Such function by and big takes topographic point on the frequence of inundation events and along with exposure analysis provides a footing for all inundation control steps ( Kaschube, 2006, p 50 ) . 2.4.2. Protection of Flood Prone Lands Vulnerability analysis and function provide critical inputs for the preparation of policies and programmes for commanding the incidence and impact of countries that are susceptible to inundations ( Johnson, et Al, 2007, p 374 ) . Policies and programmes for effectual inundation control frequently envisage carefully thought out controls over fresh development in inundation prone countries, along with programmes for decrease of harm to bing development ( Johnson, et Al, 2007, p 374 ) . Such policies are needed to restrict the increasing economic and societal losingss that come about from inundations ( Johnson, et Al, 2007, p 374 ) . Flood control programmes should in the first topographic point focal point on alternate use of lands confronting inundation hazards ( Krischenbaum, 2004, p 57-60 ) . It is frequently better to district such lands and utilize them for Parkss or other nature countries, instead than to believe of steps to protect future development from inundations ( Krischenbaum, 2004, p 57-60 ) . Zoning along with appropriate steps for inundation proofing can assist significantly in extenuation of amendss from future inundations ( Lerner, 1998, p 35 ) . However the concluding public-service corporation of such steps depends upon care and enforcement ( Lerner, 1998, p 35 ) . Many local governments, who are under developmental force per unit area, have shown inclinations to loosen up their base on inundation control as old ages pass by without the happening of inundations ( Lerner, 1998, p 35 ) . 2.4.3. Climatological Forecasting and Geographic Information Systems Significant progresss in techniques and methods for climatological prediction have now made it a really utile tool for extenuation of deluging hazards ( Kotter, 2003, p 78-86 ) . Such prediction entails the correlativity of utmost events to major changes in ocean and atmospheric circulation forms ( Kotter, 2003, p 78-86 ) . The designation of such forms helps in calculating storm activity with well greater truth than what could be done in the yesteryear ( Kron, 2000, p 570-581 ) . Climatological prediction provides of import information for betterment of exigency response preparedness ( Kron, 2000, p 570-581 ) . Such prognosiss are besides helpful for increasing handiness of reservoir storage and for constructing consciousness of deluging possible ( Kron, 2000, p 570-581 ) . Such steps can decrease flooding badness, as and when inundations occur ( Kotter, 2003, p 78-86 ) . Forecasting of utmost implosion therapy can assist local governments in taking preventative actions such as stac king up of sand bags, set uping for supplies of nutrient and H2O, and taking high value goods ( Kotter, 2003, p 78-86 ) . Climatological prediction helps in constructing public consciousness of the possible impact of inundations, foregrounding expected public responses, and transporting out drills to measure grade of readiness ( Kron, 2000, p 570-581 ) . Geographic Information Systems ( GIS ) represent package driven information and direction systems that help in prediction of H2O flows and in development of exigency responses ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . Such systems use informations from assorted beginnings, combine them appropriately, and thenceforth supply information for specific locations ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . Data on vegetive screen is for illustration combined with information on dirt and incline of land to measure infiltration rates for intents of prediction ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . Climatological prediction and geographical information systems, when used in combination, can be helpful in supplying information for the pickings of a scope of precautional steps for the extenuation of the impact of inundations ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . 2.4.4. Structural Measures Structural steps represent the project of a broad scope of infrastructural activities that aim to protect parts from the desolation that can be caused by inundations ( Munich Re, 2000, p 1-5 ) . Such structural steps mostly consist of protective infrastructural development like reservoirs for inundation storage, the recreation of inundation H2O for storage in side channels or to other H2O sheds, and the edifice of storm channels that can transport H2O around hazard prone countries ( Munich Re, 2000, p 1-5 ) . These structural steps can be built to guarantee assorted protection degrees and can assist significantly in decrease of inundation harm ( MRSC, 2010, p1 ) . The building of structural work is influenced by ( a ) determined criterions for protection against inundations, ( B ) costs and benefits of planned constructions, and ( degree Celsius ) the demand to fulfill determined hazard degrees ( MRSC, 2010, p1 ) . The project of protective substructure is of import when ( a ) significant substructure is already in topographic point, and ( B ) the costs of protecting such development is expected to be well less than what can be expected to originate out of resettlement of such substructure, lost economic activity, Reconstruction of damaged substructure, or catastrophe alleviation and aid ( Pelling, 2003, p 8-23 ) . The illustration of Winnipeg in Canada underlines the importance of battle in appropriate structural steps ( Pelling, 2003, p 8-23 ) . Structural inundation protection steps amounting to USD 92 million were completed for the metropolis in the sixtiess ( Pelling, 2003, p 8-23 ) . It is estimated that these constructions minimised the impact of five inundations that occurred since so and prevented amendss that would hold cost about USD 2 billion to mend ( Pelling, 2003, p 8-23 ) . The hard-on of protective substructure frequently leads to increase in developmental activities in countries that are at hazard from inundations, because of premises that such countries become safe from inundations after the executing of structural step ( Hultman A ; Bozmoski, 2006, p 25 ) . Such premises can nevertheless turn out to be misplaced and lead to over development with attendant addition in the exposure of such countries to inundations. Storage dikes can turn out to be highly unsafe when development in environing countries exceeds specified thresholds, because unforeseen degrees of rainfall can take to fleet addition in H2O degrees, thereby doing exigency and emptying responses really disputing ( Hultman A ; Bozmoski, 2006, p 25 ) . Structural work, to be successful against inundation protection, must be accompanied by systematic and established programmes for appraisal, fix and care, in order to keep originally specified design capablenesss. Canals, channels, and butchs, may, for illustration, be weakened by progressive eroding, motion of animate beings or hard-on of public-service corporation installations. Such infrastructural work demand to be subjected to carefully thought out safety programmes, in conformity with established guidelines and criterions. All new building allowed in inundation prone countries should integrate inundation protection steps in order to cut down the potency for future harm ( Kahn, 2005, p 271-284 ) . Constructing codifications should integrate steps for cut downing flood harm by guaranting that of import public-service corporations are located above expected floor degrees ( Kahn, 2005, p 271-284 ) . Items that can non be moved off easy should non be allowed to be stored in cellars or land floors ( Kahn, 2005, p 271-284 ) . Whilst leting new development, attention must be taken to guarantee that such development will non take to important addition of flood Waterss and thereby addition hazards to the complete country ( Kahn, 2005, p 271-284 ) . Protection of bing constructions from inundations is frequently a challenging and expensive procedure ( Handmer, 1987, p 51-58 ) . Some authoritiess have related station inundation catastrophe aid to the committedness of Reconstruction methods that will cut down future amendss from inundations ( Handmer, 1987, p 51-58 ) . Such a scheme becomes specifically utile where deluging takes topographic point frequently and pecuniary aid for catastrophe aid is an built-in constituent of catastrophe policies ( Pielke Jr. , 2000, p 5-12 ) . Flood protection of bing constructions and edifices can integrate steps like raising the degree of constructions to forestall future injury, motion of public-service corporations, change in usage of edifices, puting up of protective walls, edifice of waterproof enclosures, and use of stuffs that are immune to H2O and can be restored easy after inundation events ( Pielke Jr. , 2000, p 5-12 ) . The resettlement of bing constructions to other countries that are at lesser hazards from inundations is besides a possible, though hard option ( Newson, 1997, p 22-36 ) . Resettlement for peculiarly vulnerable constructions may nevertheless be imperative in certain instances, despite the associated troubles and disbursals ( Newson, 1997, p 22-36 ) . Particular edifices may be at such great hazard that no sum of inundation proofing steps may be sufficient to guarantee coveted degrees of safety ( Newson, 1997, p 22-36 ) . Local governments need to be steadfast in such state of affairss and guarantee resettlement in order to forestall extended loss to belongings and life in future inundation events ( Newson, 1997, p 22-36 ) . Numerous critical public-service corporation services like power lines, H2O pipes and telephone overseas telegrams frequently cross flood prone countries and acquire well damaged during inundation events, with attendant break to normal life, trouble in execution of exigency alleviation steps, and increased dangers from disease and epidemics ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . Such public-service corporations can be efficaciously protected against the dangers of implosion therapy by taking attention to guarantee excess burial deepness, better criterions for open parts, and arrangement of constituents above expected inundation degrees ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . Particular attention demands to be taken for hard-on of H2O supply and intervention substructure ( Hickcox, 1994, p 27 ) . Such constitutions are frequently located in inundation prone countries, despite their importance for safety of human wellness, both during the class of and subsequent to deluge events ( Hickcox, 1994, p 27 ) . Care must be taken to protect such constructions from inundations and their design should guarantee bar of cross taint from sewerage or inundation Waterss ( Hickcox, 1994, p 27 ) . Bridges by and big cut down H2O flows and frequently lead to the formation of unreal dikes, when dust collides and builds up on such constructions ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . The hydraulic characteristics of Bridgess and roads in inundation prone countries must be assessed during their design phase in order to forestall undue addition of upstream H2O degrees ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . Bridges play of import functions in care of entree for the remotion of affected people and for transit of exigency and medical service ( Haeuber A ; Michener, 1998, p 74 ) . Important transit corridors should be designed and built to criterions necessary for their withstanding of deluging events ( Haeuber A ; Michener, 1998, p 74 ) . It is of import to implement needed criterions and codifications for countries at hazard from inundations ( Haeuber A ; Michener, 1998, p 74 ) . Whilst most developmental experts agree that such criterions are every bit of import as the planning and executing of s tructural inundation control methods, strong inclinations frequently arise amongst planning and local governments to divert from of import and carefully formulated regulations with the transition of clip, as memories of inundations and their effects bit by bit melt away ( Haeuber A ; Michener, 1998, p 74 ) . Suitable enforcement ordinances including application of punishments need to be incorporated into care procedures in order to guarantee the continuation and effectivity of assorted inundation control steps ( Lerner, 1998, p 35 ) . Audited account processs for look intoing the effectivity of coveted inundation control steps should in the normal class be carried out by impartial checking bureaus, along with engagement of interested parties, in order to guarantee satisfaction of laid down criterions and codifications ( Lerner, 1998, p 35 ) . The debut of governmental ordinances naming for confirmation of required designed lifts or satisfaction of inundation proofing methods can significantly assist in betterment of inundation control measures on appropriately broad graduated tables ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . The engagement of imparting Bankss and insurance companies can assist in this procedure, because of the involvement of such bureaus in safeguarding their inves tings ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . 2.4.5. Non structural steps The usage of non structural steps for inundation bar and control are peculiarly relevant in inundation prone countries that are yet to be developed ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . Whilst non structural steps complement structural attacks in developed countries where extra development is being thought of and planned, they can besides be used independently in countries that are barely developed ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . Planning of land usage by local or municipal governments can assist significantly in cut downing amendss from future inundations ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . The land aboard river Bankss, lakes and seas can be developed for Parkss, walk ways and other recreational uses ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . Supportive substructure by manner of field day installations and rinsing and altering suites can be safeguarded against inundations ( Kahn, 2005, p 271-284 ) . These countries can besides be used for undertakings like golf classs ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . It is of import to guarantee than programs for inundation prone countries are integrated into broader developmental programs for contagious and environing parts ( Penning-Rowsell A ; Tapsell, 2004, p 6-38 ) . The best method for decrease of amendss from inundations in inundation prone countries is by bar of development in such lands ( Krischenbaum, 2004, p 57-60 ) . Zoning of land dramas an of import function in such exercisings ( Krischenbaum, 2004, p 57-60 ) . Such zoning can be efficaciously used to understate inundation harm and yet suit other compatible types of land usage ( Krischenbaum, 2004, p 57-60 ) . Whilst flood prone lands can be utilised for agricultural intents, it should be ensured that back uping constructions are either safeguarded from inundations, or located at a distance from such countries ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . It is of import to guarantee that people, farm animal, equipment and shops can be removed fleetly in the event of inundation warnings ( Kron, 2005, p 58-68 ) . 2.4.7. Civic Disaster Management Systems and Practices Whilst it is accepted that catastrophes strike at random and in the unlikeliest of topographic points and as such can non be avoided, surveies of metropolis planning reveal that the impact of such catastrophes can be greatly mitigated through carefully planned and good enforced catastrophe response and direction systems ( Hultman A ; Bozmoski, 2006, p 25 ) . Cities and towns are prone to a scope of catastrophes from events like temblors, storms and inundations ( Hultman A ; Bozmoski, 2006, p 25 ) . Disaster response and direction programs are developed after analyzing assorted facets of the catastrophes that can happen and their deductions for specific urban habitations ( Kahn, 2005, p 271-284 ) . Such surveies include probe and analysis of physical and geographical facets, location of countries of exposure, appraisal of available resources, development and acquisition of needed resources and assorted civic activities by disposal governments, on their ain and in coaction with occup ants for reacting to and pull offing catastrophes ( Kahn, 2005, p 271-284 ) . Vulnerability can happen because of assorted factors like over development, mass fold and presence of risky stuffs ( Kotter, 2003, p 78-86 ) . Disaster direction programs have to pay peculiar attending to extremely vulnerable countries ( Kotter, 2003, p 78-86 ) . Disaster direction is basically the duty of civic functionaries who need to develop and hold mechanisms in topographic point for supplying needed alleviation to affected countries and populations every bit fleetly as possible ( Kotter, 2003, p 78-86 ) . Such readying includes arrested development of duty, development of response squads carry oning of suited preparation and orientation exercisings and set uping for appropriate communicating and transit installations that will run in times of catastrophe ( Kotter, 2003, p 78-86 ) . Public consciousness sing impact of catastrophes and required public response drama really of import functions in creative activity of public consciousness and engagement ( Hultman A ; Bozmoski, 2006, p 25 ) . Such consciousness is built through different signifiers of communicating, the retention of workshops and seminars and the conducting of appropriate drills ( Hultman A ; Bozmoski, 2006, p 25 ) . Insurance is really of import to force in the inauspicious impacts of catastrophes. Public consciousness for insurance of life and belongings against catastrophes helps non merely in creative activities of consciousness but in existent steps for protection of life and belongings ( Johnson, et Al, 2007, p 374 ) . The engagement of insurance companies besides automatically leads to the execution of a figure of precautional steps that reinforce catastrophe response and direction attempts ( Johnson, et Al, 2007, p 374 ) . It has been seen clip and once more that readiness for catastrophes tends to melt with the passing of clip after the happening of great catastrophes ( Guenni, et Al, 2005, p 1 ) . This non merely leads to unpreparedness but besides nullifies the attempts and outgo that were made in the wake of old catastrophes ( Kaschube, 2006, p 50 ) . The care of a high degree of watchfulness is therefore the most of import component of a successful catastrophe response and direction programme ( Kaschube, 2006, p 50 ) . 2.4.8. Impact of Floods at Jeddah Flash inundations hit the town of Jeddah on the forenoon of Wednesday November 25, 2009 ( Al-Bargi, A. , 2009, p 1 ) . Heavy rain since the forenoon led to H2O logging and increase in H2O degrees in many parts of the metropolis ( Al-Bargi, A. , 2009, p 1 ) . The metropolis experienced rainfall that usually occurs in a twelvemonth in the desert metropolis in merely four hours ( Al-Bargi, A. , 2009, p 1 ) . Whilst some municipality vehicles were brought into service for pumping out H2O, their degrees continued to lift and the resulting downpour swept off autos, piled them up into mangled tonss of Fe and wholly submerged them in some parts of the metropolis ( Alice A ; King, 2009, p 1 ) . Many of the deceases in the metropolis occurred either because of submerging or in auto clangs ( Alice A ; King, 2009, p 1 ) . Some people were reportedly killed because of fall ining of Bridgess ( Alice A ; King, 2009, p 1 ) . Eye informants province that alleviation was non forthcoming in any manner from the metropolis disposal governments and people were unable to see police autos or civil defense mechanism choppers ( Al-Sulami, 2010, p 1 ) . The inundations revealed a entire absence of exigency response and catastrophe direction systems in the metropolis ( Al-Sulami, 2010, p 1 ) . Whilst the rains were so heavy during the few hours for which they occurred, it needs to be realised that around three inches of H2O fell within four on November 25, a figure that is laughably low in comparing to the rainfall that occurs during the monsoons in metropoliss like Mumbai, where life Ã¢â¬Ës goes on without break despite much greater incidence of rainfall ( Asia News, 2009, p 1 ) . An probe of past media studies reveals that the authorities had allocated and exhausted 1000000s of dollars in developing the substructure and drainage of the metropolis ( Al-Zahrani, 2009, p 1 ) . Despite such outgo, the metropolis lacked a sewerage system and family and other waste used to be stored in belowground Ce armored combat vehicles, from which it was evacuated by trucks and dumped into the musk lake, situated at the short distance from the metropolis ( Al-Zahrani, 2009, p 1 ) . It is estimated that about 1200 oilers of waste arising from the metropolis has been dumped everyday in the lake for decennaries ( AL-Ahmed, 2009, p 1 ) . The absence of a sewerage system raised the apparition of taint of the metropolis Ã¢â¬Ës imbibing H2O by overruning cess armored combat vehicles and led to frights of disease and epidemics. Even today, merely 30 % of the metropolis is protected by drainage ( AL-Ahmed, 2009, p 1 ) . The studies that followed the inundations were incensed and reproachful of the indifference of the Royal Family and the inefficiency, corruptness, apathy and unpreparedness of the disposal, many of whom had been diverted to Haj responsibility at Mecca ( AL-Ahmed, 2009, p 1 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" Many Saudis are inquiring how such a calamity could happen in one of the universe Ã¢â¬Ës richest states and in its second-largest and most widely distributed cityaÃâ Ã ¦ Jeddah is a great illustration of corruptionaÃâ Ã ¦ The Al Saud folk, led by the male monarch, has ruled since 1932 bears all the incrimination for the catastrophe in Jeddah and all the authorities failures for the past 80 yearsaÃâ Ã ¦No one should fault lazy municipal workers or rip offing contractors, or even senior authorities functionaries who work under the Al Saud. Simply, we must fault the foreman, the large foreman. That Ã¢â¬Ës where the vaulting horse stops. Ã¢â¬ ( Al Ahmed, 2009, p1 ) The strength of local and international reaction to the unpreparedness of the metropolis has resulted in the induction of a figure of disciplinary and preparative stairss. Some of these are elaborate below. Complete H2O drainage from a lake behind a precautional dike. Review and probe of all programs and systems for direction of crises and exigencies Construction of big sewerage grapevines above the land for emptying sewerage into the sea. Installation of pipes for connexion of H2O in Al-Samr Dam Construction of a 3rd clay dike to move as a 2nd line of defense mechanism to defy the flood from the lake to the north drainage canal. Expansion of sewerage intervention works near the lake Connection of the metropolis to the GPS 2.5. Research Questions Detailed survey of relevant literature, along with due consideration of the purposes and aims of the thesis, lead to the framing of the undermentioned research inquiries: How to cite Flash Floods In Jeddah Saudi Arabia Environmental Sciences Essay, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about theLearning Organization Practices. Answer: Introduction Currently, most organizations have discovered the needs for keeping the best skills and knowledge. The common reason issued by these enterprises if queried about the reasons for retaining specific expertise and skills involves preservation of competitive advantage. Notably, some professions like physicians, accounting, nursing, law, among others are efficiently executed based on the individual experience. It is believed one becomes effective and efficient after spending many years working in various positions. The best experience is majorly gained through different challenges faced at the workplace. And therefore, some optimistic organizations that value both the long and short-term objectives of the organizations have incorporated educative and mentoring programs. The programs are primarily aimed at promoting knowledge and skills exchange between the veterans and junior employees. Organization learning practices refer to activities that create, retains and facilitates the transfer of knowledge. Most probably, the transfer benefits both the organization and the junior employees. In a learning organization, the management is determined to expand their capacity and propel the enterprise towards prosperity. The process is not that simple. To succeed in the program, each and every individual has a duty to play. For instance, the management plays a principal role in enhancing a favourable environment exists for the implementation of the programs. The desire to retain knowledge and nature growing professions with the organization has resulted in increased operational costs. The need has affected both service and manufacturing industries. Consequently, the initiatives have yielded positive results. An example includes Coca Cola Inc, Microsoft Inc Corporation, and more have successfully managed to implement the programs. Theories and fallacies have been drawn by scholars to address the entire topic on learning organizational practices. Further, the attempts are intentioned in relating the learning practices to the particular organization strategy, culture, and social aspects. Knowledge retention has been justified using two fundamental theories. To begin with, the expoused theory has postulated for the formalization of the training programs. It is where the training process is conducted in alignment with an established procedure. The workability of the theory is not that efficient unlike the theory in use. Secondly, the theory in use provides for a flexible process in the knowledge transfer. With the current technology, rigidity in the execution of activities has become an element of the past. Certainly, it is the most appropriate theory that inclines with the organization long term purpose. Most importantly, the administration has a duty of ensuring the program is a value adding activity to the organization. Also, the implementation should be executed at the lowest cost. In addition, the process has just to be incorporated as part of the organization culture, and should not challenge the established social norms of the workers. In reference to the case study, the American Express is doing a beautiful work in facilitating knowledge retention. As a matter of fact, the program success depends on the level of support and motivation given to long service employees who have neared retirement. The inclusion of the program into the organizational culture imperatively obligates all of the veterans to comply with the enterprise culture. Consequently, instituting the program as a culture creates selflessness in a profession in the mentoring of the young workers. Integrating and fusing the program and practices into the system assist organizations to comprehend and address and examine the interrelationships between the employees. Inadequate understanding of the kind of cooperation within the employees deters efficiency in the monitoring of the training. The practices should be structured to create and transfer knowledge within the organization. Perhaps, the inclusion of the program in the companys strategic plans, mission, and vision does not guarantee compliance by the employees. Some of the requisites for the process to succeed includes but not limited to the following; cultivation of the art of open and attentive listening, provision of incentives, establishing criteria for the evaluation of learning, fostering a supportive learning environment, and the opening of boundaries by stimulating of the exchange of ideas. To start with, the management has no other alternative than attentively listening to the employees demands. Listening to employees views essentially creates a positive relationship between the staffs and can finally enhance the exchange of the ideas based on how to improve the program. Also, the stable relationship builds understanding and teamwork within the employees which automatically results in the achievement of organization strategic goals. Secondly, a creation of assessment and evaluation mechanisms will enhance aligning to organizations strategic plans, objectives, and efficiency. How? The mentioned aspects allow timely enactment of corrective actions in case a deviation exists. It is because the assessment will enhance pinpointing of inefficiency before reaching an advanced level. Also, the evaluation will create an opportunity to pose a challenge to those underperforming in their department. In carrying out research for establishing the efficiency of the program, the junior staffs will be exposed to an interview. An obvious method of gauging the effectiveness of the program is basically through the analysis of the results. For instance, if the enterprise specializes in the service industry, then quality will be examined. And for the case of production and manufacturing industry, the quantity and quality of products will be tested. Thirdly, the management should provide the right incentives and motivation to these veterans. The motivation acts as a backbone for most of the employees in any organization. The incentives can be in the form of salary increments, retreatment, paid holidays and more. Also, they act as a kind of recognition and appreciation by the management the relevance the staffs who are near retire adds to the organization. Consequently, they will be fully willing to share all of the paramount ideas they feel the younger employees. Fourth, the environment under which the all of these programs should be conducted from must be sustainable and conducive. The company should provide enough training and mentorship tools, among other facilities that facilitate the program. Further, financial supports should also be adequately provided. It is because money supersedes other resources. As a matter of fact, money pays for other factors of production. Therefore, adequate supply of money resource will be instrumental in ensuring that everything is executed as planned. Lastly but not least, the management has to limit on the boundaries that exist between the senior and junior staff. An interactive culture should be established within the organization systems. Therefore, the learners can customize on the element and always make inquiries when handling a new challenge. In situations where the company is infected with superiority problems, the achievement of fundamental goals becomes difficult since the aspect of teamwork and common purpose will miss out. Individualism may grow, and employees may work towards satisfying personal needs. The integration of the exchange scheme with cultural, social and organizational ethical code of standards increases the level of commitment to retirees. Also, the repeat nature of the program will prepare those who learned through the same process to reciprocate when the time come for them. The resistance levels are minimized, and the organization finds it easy to manage the process. As early noted, knowledge transfer enables the company to stay strategically positioned against others. Thus it is up to the management to identify the level of knowledge they need to retain. Perhaps, not all retiring employees hold the best knowledge and skills. The use of learning curves in establishing the competency within an individual is essential in identifying those who are best suited to lead the mentorship programs. Also, it will aid in eliminating barriers that impede the learning process within the organization. Besides the explored practices that enhance the knowledge transfer process, the retiring employees needs adequate time for balancing organizations and personal obligations. The special treatment and imposition of relaxed rules and reduced duty programs allow them to have a sufficient time of planning. The time allowed is vital for the individual to indulge in other organizational matters like the mentorship and life skills tutoring. Just to sum up, knowledge exchange programs needs to be incorporated as part of the culture and ethical codes of standards. Also, the program will not be effective until it aligns with organizations strategic plans. Although, it is perceived that technology has come with solutions to the majority of problems that existed in organizations and the young digital population are favoured regarding know-how. Conversely, professions that nurture individuals through on job training require the knowledge of experienced employees. For this reason, organizations must just remain watchful to ensure such skills are transferred to the juniors. Consequently, the orientation of the enterprise in the achievement of long-term objectives becomes realistic.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
Introduction In organizations, effective leadership is important in ensuring that achievement of objectives is realized. Leadership facilitates the attainment of a explicit goal or objective. The goal is common among all the people. To be an effective leader, it is imperative that all objectives are clear and every member understands his or her role.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Individual and Leadership specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Various theoretical frameworks and explanations provide insights on various ways that objectives become achievable through effective leadership. Besides, ways of exercising leadership differ across the board. This expository essay illuminates on the broader concept of organizational leadership. The paper will utilize various standpoints held by critical thinkers who have been pivotal throughout this course. Theoretical Frameworks of Leadership There are various the ories that explore the concept of leadership especially in organizational context. Ciulla (2003) explicates that leaders ought to adopt a style that suits their situation. While that is so, leaders have to exhibit specific traits that make them stand out in a group. Trait theories articulate that leaders have intrinsic ability to influence others. This implies that leaders are inborn and not everyone in the society is able to assume a position of leadership. Another theory that explains the concept of leadership involves cognition and learning. The theorists assert that people acquire leadership traits through experience and being in a position of followership. Thus, everyone can assume a position of leadership as long as they have acquired enough experience to lead a group towards its goals and objectives. These are among many theories that explain leadership in the context of organization. Further, it is important to notice that exercise of leadership is dependent on the strategy that a leader assumes. Ellis Harper (1997) says that transformative leaders will employ a style that is convincing to people and use their charisma to enhance the achievement of organizational goals. This is contrary to dictatorial and authoritative leaders who not only use their authority to decide the course that a group takes but also dismiss teamwork. Situational leaders on the other hand will always attempt to handle every matter as it arises (Yukl, 2006). They are also synonymous to contingent leaders who respond to different situation as they crop up. Indeed, they do not have any prior plans that anticipate situations.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the contemporary world, the need for supportive leaders is increasing. This is in lieu of the fact that leaders will be the focal point of every organization in ensuring that members achieve their goals as pl anned. They support and encourage their members without any form of discrimination. In addition, they allow members to participate meaningfully when working towards a common goal. This way, members are able to contribute important insights that lead to improvement of the organization. Ciulla (2003) says that organizations should be able to ensure that all members are able to give their opinions. She further says that effective communication where information flows from the staff members to the management is the best way to enhance ethical and effective leadership (Ciulla, 2003). This way, a leader is able to understand the emotional intelligence of all members and make sure that they do not cross the line when issuing instructions (Ellis Harper, 1997). To this end, members become committed to the organization making it easy for the leaders to achieve effectiveness. Nonetheless, it is upon the leader to adopt a leadership style that he or she feels will be able to motivate the group towards the objectives. Individual and Organizational Leadership Spence et al. (2004) articulate that organizations are composed of different individuals who fulfill their roles and responsibilities to achieve its objectives. As such, various individuals perform their duties at different capacities. Of particular interest are leaders of departments and other functions of the organization. As a leader, it is important to ensure that the members are able to comprehend their roles in a clear manner (Ellis Harper, 1997). This is possible through effective communication and support. The leaders should be in a position to form a team through which various abilities, talents and skills become apparent. In addition, the leader should be able to inculcate an element of trust among his followers. This way, members will open up and give the leader a chance to understand their emotional intelligence.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Individual and Leadership specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While some members respond to a specific situation in a calm way, others may react in an opposite way. As such, emotional intelligence is the key to unraveling the character that every member possesses. Ciulla (2003) explains that an individual who occupies leadership position in an organization ought to understand the aforementioned aspects of group members. According to Hobbes, a leader has power. Power within an organization is positional. It ought to propel an individual to ensuring that the organization achieves its mandate, which to large extents, involves influencing others. To this end, a leader should be able to comprehend the aspects of power that could impede the achievement of goals. Effect of Ethical Leadership in Organizations In the modern business environment, the concept of ethical leadership has become a norm. Corporations are seeking to control their activities and limit them to onl y those that yield benefits for all stakeholders. Ethics are guidelines of acting in a way that does not injure humanness of people in the pretext of increasing profit margins. While it is true that many organizations have entrenched ethical frameworks in their decision-making processes, sometimes they experience ethical dilemmas. This is when the interests of the organization are at stake for taking ethical standpoints. For instance, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s fast food company embarks on an aggressive social responsibility regardless of its financial performance. The company has suffered immensely from health practitionersÃ¢â¬â¢ articulations that junk food is unhealthy for people. Nonetheless, the fast food giant continues to make substantial amounts of revenues notwithstanding the health issues raised regarding fries and junk. Should a company bear the social obligation to meet the demands of the society despite making profits from hazardous goods to consumers? Apparently, the major ob jective of any corporate organization is to maximize on profits and increase the wealth of the shareholders. This case presents two moral dilemmas for an organization. First, despite profiting from unhealthy products, the company continues to direct substantial proportion for the revenues to corporate social responsibility. Is it worthwhile? Second, to what extents are companies morally obligated to assume moral standpoints yet the main objective of a company is to increase its profit margin and increase the value for its shareholders.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Corporate social responsibility reflects reward power to the society where the company reaps benefits from sales and rewards the society through the initiative (Spence et al., 2004). The use of reward power by McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has helped the organization to meet its objectives amidst calls for a paradigm shifts in eating habits. Yukl (2006) explicates that the most important aspect of an organization that the leaders ought to understand entails dealing with stakeholders in a manner that does not lower their value. According to Yukl, does the company have the moral obligation of helping the society? Leaders ought to be the representatives of organizations and as such, they act in line with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives (Yukl, 2006). By embarking on the aggressive social responsibility strategy, the leaders are just acting in line with the objective of making unprecedented profits and the strategy reflects use power influence. Further, the concept of power and self-interests e lucidated by Plato could infer that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has centralized power of influencing both the employees as well as the society. Plato sees no rationale for embarking on such strategy since it would imply that people have power. He distances himself from Ã¢â¬Ëpeople powerÃ¢â¬â¢ and argues that the company, which in this case represents the Ã¢â¬ËRepublicÃ¢â¬â¢, should not bear any moral obligation for the society (Bostock, 2000). In essence, the society has no mandate to demand any source of help from the company. The wielder of power, in this case, McDonalds bear the mandate of distributing power in any manner it feels best address the interests of the people without coercion. Due to the power of self-interests, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s should focus on its objectives, which is to increase the wealth of its owners rather than distributing its revenues to people (Annas, 1981). The self-interests of the shareholders should prevail as opposed to the need to address societyÃ¢â¬â¢ s issues, which is in itself contradicts the essence of the Ã¢â¬ËRepublicÃ¢â¬â¢. Annas (1981) points out that leaders of the organization who are the shareholders and management should concentrate power for the sake of achieving individually motivated goals and objectives. Contrary to the views of Plato, Hobbes could judge the dilemma from different perspectives. His perspective of power, which in this case is wielded by McDonalds, should be in relation to other people. In his masterpiece, The Leviathan, Hobbes says that power is relational to other people without whom there would be no any phenomenon referred to as power (Ellis Harper, 1997). Hence, McDonalds has wielded relative power given that the consumers continue to have faith in the company. To that end, the exercise of power should be with the aim of ensuring that the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders have the satisfaction with the organization. This way, the company will continue making profits and achieve it financi al and organizational goal. This raises the next question, to what extents are companies obligated to have a social responsibility initiative? Hobbes argues that there is a minimum standard power that people should possess. In what he referred to as ceding power, McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ aggressive corporate social responsibility should be seen as a way of showing that people hold this type of power. It is therefore important for the company to act devoid of self-interests and provide healthy foods to the consumer as a show of ceding power (Zaccaro et al., 2001). Niccollo Machiavelli would argue in line with his premise that human nature is typical of endless competition. In fact, the essence of life is to ensure that every person gets an edge over others. Applying this argument to the context of an organization, McDonalds should not relent on its current strategy whether or not the food they serve are healthy. Antonakis et al. (2009) assert that the company should focus on ensuring that i t maximizes on profits without considering the consequences of its operations on the society or consumer. This is in lieu of the fact that an organization should aim at posing the increased competition with other food industry despite the means it uses. Owing to this nature of human beings, the revenues of the company should not fund corporate social responsibility since it negates human nature (Ciulla, 2003). Machiavelli infers that an organization should act selfishly and amass wealth for the stakeholders who ultimately should understand that life is short, nasty and brutal (Davis Blomstrom, 1975). Despite such radical standpoint held by Machiavelli, all organizations are selfish because competition is a reality in business environment. As such, all companies aim at having an edge over others in order to increase their earnings and enrich the stockholders as opposed to the stakeholders. To the contrary, Rand conceptualizes the concept of power by elucidating that practical power is important and inherent aspect of human beings (Carroll Buchholtz, 2006). Therefore, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s consumers should be able to question the motives of the organization and demand the company to give back to the society through corporate social responsibility. Conclusion In essence, leadership is an important aspect of organizations. Various theories attempt to explain leadership from different standpoints. They include cognition, behavioral and traits among many others. These theories attempt to unravel the reasons behind successful leaders in organizations and amplify the role of individuals in an organization. Further, it is important to emphasize the importance of ethical leadership and dilemmas. The aforementioned case of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s gives an illustration of various ways that an organization can face ethical dilemmas despite adopting ethical decisions. References Annas, J. (1981). An introduction to PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic. Oxford: Clarendon Press Antonakis, J., Ash kanasy, N. Dasborough, M. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly, 20 (2), 247Ã¢â¬â261. Bostock, D. (2000). AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press. Carroll, A. Buchholtz, A. (2006). Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. Ciulla, B. (2003).The Ethics of Leadership. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Thompson-Wadsworth Publishers. Davis, K. Blomstrom, R. (1975). Business and Society: Environment and Responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ellis, A. Harper, R. (1997). A Guide to Rational Living. Hollywood, California: Wilshire. Spence, L., Habisch, A. Schmidpeter, R. (2004). Responsibility and Social Capital. The World of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. New York: Palgrave. Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in Organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Zaccaro, J., Rittman, L., Marks, A. (2001). Team leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 12(4), 451-483. 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Thursday, March 5, 2020
South Africa Geography and History South Africa is the southernmost country on the African continent. It has a long history of conflict and human rights issues but it has always been one of the most economically prosperous nations in southern Africa due to its coastal location and the presence of gold, diamonds and natural resources. Population: 49,052,489 (July 2009 est.)Capital: Pretoria (administrative capital), Bloemfontein (judiciary), and Cape Town (legislative)Area: 470,693 square miles (1,219,090 sq km)Coastline: 1,738 miles (2,798 km)Highest Point: Njesuthi at 11,181 feet (3,408 m) History of South Africa By the 14th century C.E, the region was settled by the Bantu people who migrated from central Africa. South Africa was first inhabited by Europeans in 1488 when the Portuguese arrived at the Cape of Good Hope. However, permanent settlement didnt occur until 1652 when the Dutch East India Company established a small station for provisions on the Cape. In the following years, French, Dutch and German settlers began to arrive in the region. By the late 1700s, European settlements were spread throughout the Cape and by the end of the 18th century the British controlled the entire Cape of Good Hope region. In the early 1800s, in an effort to escape British rule, many native farmers called Boers migrated north, and in 1852 and 1854, the Boers created the independent Republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free State. After the discovery of diamonds and gold in the late 1800s, more European immigrants arrived in South Africa and this eventually led to the Anglo-Boer Wars, which the British won, causing the republics to become part of the British Empire. In May 1910, though, the two republics and Britain formed the Union of South Africa, a self-governing territory of the British Empire, and in 1912, the South African Native National Congress (eventually called the African National Congress or ANC) was founded with the goal of providing blacks in the region with more freedom. Despite the ANC in an election in 1948, the National Party won and began passing laws enforcing a policy of racial separation called apartheid. In the early 1960s, the ANC was banned and Nelson Mandela and other anti-apartheid leaders were convicted of treason and imprisoned. In 1961, South Africa became a republic after it withdrew from the British Commonwealth because of international protests against apartheid and in 1984 a constitution was put into effect. In February 1990, President F.W. de Klerk, unbanned the ANC after years of protest and two weeks later Mandela was released from prison. Four years later on May 10, 1994, Mandela was elected as South Africas first black president and during his time in office he was committed to reforming race-relations in the country and strengthening its economy and place in the world. This has remained the goal of subsequent governmental leaders. Government of South Africa Today, South Africa is a republic with two legislative bodies. Its executive branch is its Chief of State and Head of Government- both of which are filled by the president who is elected for five year terms by the National Assembly. The legislative branch is a bicameral Parliament composed of the National Council of the Provinces and the National Assembly. South Africas judicial branch is made up of its Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Appeals, High Courts and Magistrate Courts. South Africas Economy South Africa has a growing market economy with a plethora of natural resources. Gold, platinum and precious stones such as diamonds account for nearly half of South Africas exports. Auto assembly, textiles, iron, steel, chemicals and commercial ship repair also play a role in the countrys economy. In addition agriculture and agricultural exports are significant to South Africa. Geography of South Africa South Africa is divided into three major geographic regions. The first is the African Plateau in the countrys interior. It forms a portion of the Kalahari Basin and is semiarid and sparsely populated. It slopes gradually in the north and west but rises to 6,500 feet (2,000 meters) in the east. The second region is the Great Escarpment. Its terrain varies but its highest peaks are in the Drakensberg Mountains along the border with Lesotho. The third region are the narrow, fertile valleys along the coastal plains. The climate of South Africa is mostly semiarid; but, its eastern coast regions are subtropical with mainly sunny days and cool nights. South Africas west coast is arid because the cold ocean current Benguela, removes moisture from the region which has formed the Namib Desert that extends into Namibia. In addition to its varied topography, South Africa is famous for its biodiversity. South Africa currently has eight wildlife reserves, the most famous of which is Kruger National Park along the border with Mozambique. This park is home to lions, leopards, giraffes, elephants and hippopotamus. The Cape Floristic Region along South Africas west coast is also important as it is considered a world biodiversity hotspot which is home to endemic plants, mammals and amphibians. More Facts about South Africa South Africas population estimates must account for excess mortality due to AIDS and its affect on life expectancy, infant mortality and population growth rates.South Africa divides its governmental power among three capitals. Bloemfontein is the capital of the judiciary, Cape Town is the legislative capital, and Pretoria is the administrative capital. Resources and Further Reading Centrail Intelligence Agency. (2010, April 22). CIA - The World Factbook South Africa. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.htmlInfoplease.com. (n.d.) South Africa: History, Geography, Government, and Culture - Infoplease.com. Retrieved from: infoplease.com/ipa/A0107983.htmlUnited States Department of State. (2010, February). South Africa (02/10). Retrieved from: state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2898.htm
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Police Recruit Applicants Report - Term Paper Example All the interviewers gave a varied assessment of the integrity, emotional stability and professionalism. Interviewer A rated her as very good on this aspect, interviewer B concluded that she is good while interviewer C felt convinced that Summerton can only be rated as average on the three aspects. This demonstrates that the applicant can be correctly described as good in terms of professionalism, integrity and emotional stability. Summerton has a good knowledge of laws, regulations, policies and procedures according to the three interviewers. Furthermore, her analytical and reasoning skills are good as rated by two of the three assessors with the other rating her as very good. Summerton is good in community and team relationships except for one assessor who rated her as average. Given the opinion of the majority, Summerton can be described as being a good team player and having good community relationships. The interview also assessed oneÃ¢â¬â¢s oral and written communication skil ls. On this aspect, Summerton was rated as good by two out of the three interviewers while the other rating her as average. Given the opinion of the interviewers, Summerton can be rightly described as having good communication skills. ... She can also be described as of average personality when it comes to being helpful, sympathetic towards others and cooperation. Despite the above admirable personality traits, Summerton has a low degree of sociability, talkativeness and assertiveness. The information provided by Summerton was authenticated by the referees and employers checks as true. Moreover, she was cleared by the ethical standards division. The second applicant for police recruitment post was a male named Thomas Garrigan. He is aged 27 and has previously worked as a retail assistant for two years and as a nurse for a year. Upon completing his high school, Thomas pursed a degree in Science and a Bachelor in Nursing. He is rated as good in terms of integrity, emotional stability and professionalism. He is also very good in terms of knowledge of laws, regulations, policies and procedures. He has good analytical and reasoning skills according to the majority of interviewers. His written and oral communication skill i s also good and is a good team player. Thomas is physical fit and had high achievement on the beep test. When it comes to major personality traits; Thomas is highly disciplined, result oriented and organized. Thomas is averagely a helpful person, sympathetic to others and cooperative. He also has an average ability of controlling his impulse, anxiety and emotional stability. Furthermore, he can be described as having average socialization skills. He is also averagely an assertive and talkative person. Thomas is not curious to learn new ideas and try new things. He has been influenced by his father who is presently a Senior Sergeant in charge of Morryvale Station. Thomas is a sincere gentleman with all the